Anticoagulants are substances that prevents blood coagulation. There are many chemical substances that prevent blood coagulation. All of them have some merits and demerits. There are variety of blood tests abd a single anticoagulant is not suitable for all the purpose. So, many types of anticoagulants are used in pathologicalContinue Reading


Microbiology is the study of microbes or microbiological organism. Microbiology was initially limited to cause and study of infectious disease. Now it is applied widely and practically to study disease and diagnosis and research purpose. There is a long history and many people contributed in the field of microbiology. EarlyContinue Reading

Malaria Parasite count

Malaria parasite count provides information on severity of infection and the response of treatment. It provide information on malaria burden which is necessary for prognostic purpose and help in monitoring the disease and is  vital for proper management of patient. This may also help to assess response to malaria vaccineContinue Reading

Lab helpline

What is D-Dimer When a blood vessels or tissues are injured in our body, bleeding occurs. Body has a mechanism to stop the bleeding called homeostasis by which blood clot develops initially and block the leaked or injured area. Later on, injured area repaired permanently. When full repairing is done,Continue Reading

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The full form of CT value is ‘Cycle Threshold value’. It tells us about virus concentration in a sample. TESTING OF SAMPLE RT-PCR test detects amount of viral DNA or RNA molecule in a testing sample. For details about PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) CLICK HERE The instrument cannot detect veryContinue Reading


Examination of Urine is a very important subject in laboratory testing. Urine examination is very common and need details knowledge and through observation and examination. It gives an idea about urinary problems of the patient. GROSS PHYSICAL EXAMINATION It is a mirror of kidney disease. so, every doctor, lab technicianContinue Reading


Full name of PCR is Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Using an enzyme Taq polymerase, DNA or required segments of DNA can be copied in a chain reaction. Within a span of 2-3 hours, millions of copies of DNA can be done. The process was first developed by American biochemist KaryContinue Reading

ZN staining

Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique is a special bacteriological stain to identify Acid Fast organism. This was first described by two German scientist doctor, Franz Ziehl and a pathologist Fredrich Neelsen to identify acid fast organism. The Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique was first introduced by Ziehl and later modified by Neelsen. So namedContinue Reading

Dipstick Method

Protein in urine is called proteinuria. There are various tests to detect urine protein. Mostly used tests are- Heat & acetic acid test  -this is the most common test Procedure: Take  urine in a test tube almost 2/3rd filled heat upper part àcloud appear. Add 3% acetic acetic acid 2-3Continue Reading


A reticulocyte is a immature Erythrocyte that has lost its nucleus but retains aggregates of RNA within its ribosome. Mature RBC do not contain RNA. DEVELOPMENT OF RBC Pronormoblast Earliest Erythrocyte identifiable is “Pronormoblast”. Also called RUBRIBLAST. It divide and give 16 mature RBC through 4 cell division within 72Continue Reading