Microbiology is the study of microbes or microbiological organism. Microbiology was initially limited to cause and study of infectious disease. Now it is applied widely and practically to study disease and diagnosis and research purpose. There is a long history and many people contributed in the field of microbiology. EarlyContinue Reading

ZN staining

Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique is a special bacteriological stain to identify Acid Fast organism. This was first described by two German scientist doctor, Franz Ziehl and a pathologist Fredrich Neelsen to identify acid fast organism. The Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique was first introduced by Ziehl and later modified by Neelsen. So namedContinue Reading

Dipstick Method

Protein in urine is called proteinuria. There are various tests to detect urine protein. Mostly used tests are- Heat & acetic acid test  -this is the most common test Procedure: Take  urine in a test tube almost 2/3rd filled heat upper part àcloud appear. Add 3% acetic acetic acid 2-3Continue Reading


A reticulocyte is a immature Erythrocyte that has lost its nucleus but retains aggregates of RNA within its ribosome. Mature RBC do not contain RNA. DEVELOPMENT OF RBC Pronormoblast Earliest Erythrocyte identifiable is “Pronormoblast”. Also called RUBRIBLAST. It divide and give 16 mature RBC through 4 cell division within 72Continue Reading


For any microbiological examination, smears of material are most vital. It is the primary requirement in microbiological staining If smears are not properly and fixation is in wrong procedure, exact staining and diagnosis may not be possible. Labelling of smear Every slide must be labelled with Patients name, Serial Number,Continue Reading

H and E staining

Hematoxylin and Eosin staining of tissue section is main staining method of histopathology staining. It helps to identify human tissue structure. The method of hematoxylin and eosin stains are described in short. Procedure Put the slide on hot plate/ flaming for few seconds ( to soften paraffin ) Then immediatelyContinue Reading

Gram Stain

Gram stain was originally devised by Dr. Christian Gram, a histopathologist, to stain bacteria in tissue sample. Now Gram stains is used widely to identify bacteria and an important part of microbiology and bacteriology. Gram staining is not only used for identification of bacteria, but it also help to understandContinue Reading