Protein in urine is called proteinuria. There are various tests to detect urine protein. Mostly used tests are-
Heat & acetic acid test -this is the most common test
- Take urine in a test tube almost 2/3rd filled
- heat upper part
- àcloud appear.
- Add 3% acetic acetic acid 2-3 drop
- If coagulum persists then presence of Albumin confirmed.
- If coagulum disappears – possible cause of cloudiness is presence of phosphates.
Result – in case of proteinuria
- Neg- no cloud
- Trace – barely visible cloudiness
- 1+ à definite cloud without granular deposit [ < 0.1%]
- 2+ à heavy granular cloud without flocculation [ 0.10-0.25%]
- 3+ à dense cloud with flocculation [ 0.25-0.5% ]
- 4+ à thick, curdy ppt. With coagulation [. .5%]
Sulphosalicylic acid test :
Take 2ml Urine and add equal volume 3% Sulphosalicylic acid à invert test tube & mix à stand 10min.
Reading similar like heat & acetic acid test.
Heller’s Nitric acid test:
Take 1ml concentrated fuming Nitric acid à add 2ml Urine by the side of TT à whitish ring appears at the junction due to formation of metaprotein.
Detect albumin in strip changing colour. Detect as low as 20mg% albumin in urine.
Quantitative test : Esbach`s method by Esbach`s Albuminometer
- Take filtered acidified urine up to U mark of albumin meter àadd reagent up to R markà stand for 24 hours.
- Take reading after 24 hours.
- Reading are expressed as gm/L.
- Result divided by 10 will give mg%.
- Result X 24 hours urine quantity will give à 24 hrs total urine excretion
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