Examination of Urine is a very important subject in laboratory testing. Urine examination is very common and need details knowledge and through observation and examination. It gives an idea about urinary problems of the patient. GROSS PHYSICAL EXAMINATION It is a mirror of kidney disease. so, every doctor, lab technicianContinue Reading


Full name of PCR is Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Using an enzyme Taq polymerase, DNA or required segments of DNA can be copied in a chain reaction. Within a span of 2-3 hours, millions of copies of DNA can be done. The process was first developed by American biochemist KaryContinue Reading

ZN staining

Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique is a special bacteriological stain to identify Acid Fast organism. This was first described by two German scientist doctor, Franz Ziehl and a pathologist Fredrich Neelsen to identify acid fast organism. The Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique was first introduced by Ziehl and later modified by Neelsen. So namedContinue Reading

Dipstick Method

Protein in urine is called proteinuria. There are various tests to detect urine protein. Mostly used tests are- Heat & acetic acid test  -this is the most common test Procedure: Take  urine in a test tube almost 2/3rd filled heat upper part àcloud appear. Add 3% acetic acetic acid 2-3Continue Reading


A reticulocyte is a immature Erythrocyte that has lost its nucleus but retains aggregates of RNA within its ribosome. Mature RBC do not contain RNA. DEVELOPMENT OF RBC Pronormoblast Earliest Erythrocyte identifiable is “Pronormoblast”. Also called RUBRIBLAST. It divide and give 16 mature RBC through 4 cell division within 72Continue Reading


For any microbiological examination, smears of material are most vital. It is the primary requirement in microbiological staining If smears are not properly and fixation is in wrong procedure, exact staining and diagnosis may not be possible. Labelling of smear Every slide must be labelled with Patients name, Serial Number,Continue Reading

H and E staining

Hematoxylin and Eosin staining of tissue section is main staining method of histopathology staining. It helps to identify human tissue structure. The method of hematoxylin and eosin stains are described in short. Procedure Put the slide on hot plate/ flaming for few seconds ( to soften paraffin ) Then immediatelyContinue Reading

Gram Stain

Gram stain was originally devised by Dr. Christian Gram, a histopathologist, to stain bacteria in tissue sample. Now Gram stains is used widely to identify bacteria and an important part of microbiology and bacteriology. Gram staining is not only used for identification of bacteria, but it also help to understandContinue Reading